October 22, 2017
Hamlet -- Borrowed, Crawled and PythonedOn this day in 1602, printer James Robertes entered in the Stationers' Register, "A booke called the Revenge of Hamlett Prince Denmarke as yt was latelie Acted by the Lord Chamberleyne his servants." Shakespeare seems to have written Hamlet about 1600; more certain is that two of the Chamberlain's Men in the original cast at the Globe playhouse were Richard Burbage, as Hamlet, and Shakespeare, probably as the Ghost and perhaps as Claudius, too -- a casting economy which might have given Gertrude a start.
James Robertes was practicing standard thievery for these pre-copyright times, but Shakespeare too had borrowed. As well as various mythic sources, an 11th-12th century Danish saga entitled "Amleth" tells the tale of Feng murdering his brother, Horwendil in order to marry Gerutha, his sister-in-law; causing son Amleth to pretend to be mad in order to save himself; causing the suspicious Feng to set woman- and spy-traps for young Amleth; causing Amleth to be sent to England guarded by two no-goods carrying an execution letter, which Amleth will alter to have, as Shakespeare puts it, "the engineer hoist with his own petard."
Apart from the complexity and depth, Shakespeare's unique additions include the play-within-the-play device. Stage historian John Mills (Hamlet on Stage: The Great Tradition, 1985) documents over a century of lead actors who borrowed the stage business of "Hamlet's Crawl" for this scene. Starting with Edmund Kean in 1814, Hamlet would slither and squint towards Claudius, jumping up when the guilty conscience was "frighted with false fire." The first-night reviewer for the London Herald was appalled:
There are almost as many Hamlet parodies, the one following owing a lot to Monty Python's Dead Parrot:
Digger I'll tell you what's wrong with him, my Lord. He's dead, that's what's wrong with him.
Hamlet No, no, he's resting. Look you upon those lips that I have kissed.
Digger My Lord, I know a dead jester when I see one, and I'm looking at one right now.
Hamlet No, he is not dead. He is merely resting.
Hamlet Yes, a remarkable fellow, Yorick. Beautiful skin tone.
Digger His skin tone don't enter into it - he's stone dead.
Hamlet To be or not to be...
Digger God, not a soliloquy! I have work to do.
Hamlet Right then, wrap him up. I'll take him with me. Yorick loves a good ride.
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